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The document belongs to the PED 101 - 212 course at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Professor Lindsey Nanney in the Spring term of 2016. For similar materials, see: 101 - Lindsey Nanney, UNCW Physical Education, and UNCW Course Notes.

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The document belongs to the Biology 107 course at a university taught by Professor William Davis in the Spring term of 2015. Date Created: 05/04/15 Final Study Guide So a reminder only 18 questions will be based on previous material and 36 questions on the material we just covered in class after exam 3 So make sure to review your previous exams 1 2 b PONFDSquot 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 what is the definiton of an anabolic metabolic pathway A pathway that stores energy and stores matter What biomacromolecules is used as an energy source in metabolism Lipids proteins and carbohydrates Definition of catabolic metabolic pathway A pathway that releases energy and releases matter An electron far from the nucleus will potential energy and kinetic energy as it moves towards the nucleus Lose Gain What biomacromolecule has the highest stored chemical energy Lipids If a chemical reaction is spontaneous then this is true delta G lt 0 If a chemical is NOT spontaneous then this is also true Delta G gt O Enzymes reduce the of a reaction but do notching the overall Activation energy delta G If a reaction is endergonic then delta Ggt O Enzyme reactions occer at a specific region of a protein known as Active site 11 12 Anabolic reactions are endergonic The induced fit model for enzymes applies to the specificity of enzymes substrates An enzyme catalyzes the reaction AB gt The addition of compound X decreases the rate of the reaction but X does not bind to the active site X is an example of a Allosteric inhibitor The active site of an enzyme is the region that ls involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme What is formed by the removal of CO2 from a molecule of pyruvate Acetyl Co A Starting with one molecule of glucose the energy containing products of glycolysis are 2 NAD 2 Pyruvate 2 ATP When a molecule of NAD gains two electrons and a proton the molecule becomes reduced Most of the CO2 from the catabolism of glucose is released during The Citric acid cycle Which electron carrier function in the citric acid cycle NADH and FADH2 During aerobic respiration electrons travel downhill in energy in this sequence Glucose NADH electron transport chain oxygen Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located Mitochondrial inner membrane During aerobic respiration H2O is formed where does the oxygen in water come from Molecular oxygen 02 What occurs in the electron transport chain The extraction of energy from electrons removed during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle In chemiosmosis what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP Pi to ATP Energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase down their electrochemical gradient Best description of the termination of transcription on prokaryotes RNA polymerase transcribes to the terminator sequence causing the polymerase to separate from the DNA and release the transcript Binding to their 26 During elongation a peptide bond is formed in which site of the ribosome A site 27 What occurs in prokaryotic gene expression but not in eukaryotic gene expression A cap is added to the 5 end of the m RNA 28 How does termination of translation take place A stop codon is reached 29 According to central dogma what molecule should go in the blank DNAgt gt protein m RNA 30 Best statement that describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules respiration releases energy from complex organic molecules 31 What is the primary function of the calvin cycle synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide 32 What is something that does NOT occur in the calvin cycle release of oxygen 33 Where does the calvin cycle take place Stroma of the chloroplast 34 In a plant the reaction that produces sugar molecules occur in The calvin cycle ALONE 35 What are the products of linear electron transport in the chloroplast ATP NADPH and oxygen 36 What event accompanies light energy absorption by chlorophyll An electron is excited 37 The electrons of photosystem II are excited and transferred to electron carriers What molecule or structure do the photosystem II replacement electrons come Water 38 What ratio of ATP to NADPH is made by the light reactions of photosynthesis 3 ATP to 2 NADPH 39 Sequence which represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis H2O gt NADPH gt Calvin Cycle anabolic pathways 0 build up complex molecules from simpler chemicals 0 require the input of energy from surroundings 0 build up like Arnold metabolic pathways speci c ways that energy and matter are transformed catabolic anabolic Metabolism how organisms take in energy and matter from surroundings convert into other forms and either use or release it 0 The totality of an organisms chemical reactions must account for both energy and matter Catabolic pathways 0 release energy into the environment of the cell 0 break down complex chemicals into more simple forms 0 CAT breaks down toilet paper Protein composition Monomer amino acid polymer polypeptide why aren39t catabolic and anabolic pathways mirror images of each other they have distinct steps that can be turned on and off depending on the cells needs 0 a cell would not synthesize a complex Segments in an operon promoter operon genes Regulation in prokaryotes occurs at transcription Regulation in prokaryotes is because of the use of operons Operon cluster of functionally related genes amp their control sequences all expressed or all repressed coordinated regulation of genes involved in one pathway What channel is lactose brought into the cell by Galactoside permease What are the two monosaccharides the disaccharide lactose is hydrolyzed into Glucose and galactose by B Galactosidase beta Things to Know Genotype Law of segregation phenotype heaterozygous kinetic energy potential energy The promotor of the lac operon will bind to all of the following except The Lacl protein In sugar related operons such as the Lac operon CAP binds to DNA to stimulate transcription What causes an increase in CAP activity A decrease in glucose and an increase in CAMP 3 The binding of a protein to an operon results in increased gene expression This is an example of control Postive 4 All operans have an operator sequence The operator sequence is located the promoter sequence and the first gene coding region In between 5 The lacl gene encodes Lac repressor 6 What is the smallest object below that can be seen accurately with a light microscope Mitochondria 7 Which of the following statements about the eukaryotic nucleus is false Synthesizes proteins for the cell The function of the nucleolus is which of the following Assemble ribosome subunits Which of the following is not a component of both Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Mitochondria 10 Why do electron microscopes allow us to see thing smaller than can be seen with light microscopes Electrons have a shorter wavelength than photons 11 A mammalian cell that is highly metabolically active consumes oxygen and produced large quantities of oxygen radicals Which organelle would be abundant in this cell Peroxisomes 12 Which of the following is not evidence of the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria Produce ATP 13 Which organelle is responsible for sorting and packaging of proteins The Golgi apparatus NL p90 14 Which of the following is not a component of both Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Mitochondria 15 Which of the following is one function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum Lipid synthesis 16 Cells in tissues that are exposed to physical stress skin and teeth are joined by which structures Desmosomes 17 Amoeboid movement of cells requires force production by Actin filaments 18 Centriole and cilia look similar in cross section but centrioles lack what A central pair of microtubules 19 Microtubules are needed for movement of all of the following except Muscles 20 Which of the following is a cytoskeletal filament that is made up of subunits that form alpha beta heterodimers Microtubules 21 In plants turgor pressure results from what Plant cells are hypertonic relative to their surroundings 22 Which of the following is true about cholesterol and its affect on membranes Makes membranes more fluid at low temperatures 23 Which of the following is true about carrier proteins They allow movement of solutes form areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration 24 Which of the following is can cross a cell membrane easily using passive transport Small hydrophobic molecules 25 The movement of water across a biological membrane due to differences in solute concentration is known as what Osmosis 26 What allows a cell to maintain an internal ionic concentration that is different than its surroundings Active transport 27 Nonspecific uptake of small proteins or polar nutrients by cells is most likely accomplished by which mechanism pinocytosis Things to know Control of gene expression Lac operon gene regulation in prokaryotes Gene regulation why is it important for an organism to regulate gene expression importance of gene regulation in prokaryotes energy conservation allow them to respond to their environment Glalctoside permease Bgalactosidase Lac repressor CAP c AMP Cell theory cell fractionation organelles Electron microscopy scanning electron microscopes transmission electron microscopes difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells eutrue and karyon kernel DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic cells are generally larger than prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells 1 During anaphase where are kinetochore microtubules disassembling The kinetochore 2 What occurs in prophase The mitotic spindle begins to form 3 When during the cell cycle is DNA replicated S phase 4 What is a metaphase plate The center of the mitotic spindle where chromosomes align during metaphase 5 At what stage of mitosis do sister chromatids separate Anaphase 6 What is the function of the maturation promoting factor It gets a cell past the G2 checkpoint 7 If a cell does not get a signal to pass the G1 checkpoint what happens lt enters GO 8 Which of the following is degraded at the end of the mitotic phase of the cell cycle Maturation promoting factor 9 If an M phase cell is fused to a cell in G1 what happens The G1 cell enters M phase 10 The haploid organism in a plants lifecycle is known as Gametophyte 11 What is not true of organisms that reproduce asexually Offspring are genetically different than their parents 12 The position of a gene on a specific chromosome is called what Locus 13 In organisms that exhibit sexual reproduction matching chromosomes inhered from each parentage called what homologs 14 If a gamete produced by a diploid animal has 20 chromosomes how many pairs of chromosomes will be present in the organisms somatic cells 20 15 The synaptonemal complex does what Hold homologous chromosomes together during Meiosis l 16 Which is not a major source of genetic variation on organisms that reproduce sexualy Random mutation 17 At what point in meiosis do sister chromatids separate Anaphase ll 18 What occurs in Anaphase ll of meiosis Chromatids separate producing 1n daughter cells 19 At what point in meiosis do homologous chromosomes separate Anaphase l 20 A version of a gene having a specific nucleotide sequence is called what Allele 21 The shape of pea seeds can either round or wrinkled When a true breeding round plant is crossed to a true breeding wrinkled plant all of the offspring have round seeds The trait for round seeds is therefore called what Dominant 22 Mendels law of independent assortment states what Alleles for two traits are inherited independently of each other 23 A trait for the yellow pea color is dominant and designed Y Plants with the recessive allele y have green seeds What is the phenotype of offspring from true breeding dominant and recessive parents Yellow seeds 24 What is an example for the correct term trait Blonde hair 25 A bacteria with the name Rhodococcus is most likely what shape in the microscope Sphencal 26 Bacteria replicate themselves through the process of Binary fission 27 What would not allow a bacterium to adhere to a human cell Nucleoid 28 The dye crystal violet stains the following biological structure Peptidoglycan 29 What was the major finding in the experiments of Linski Bacteria can evolve new traits through random mutations 30 If a bacteria cell has the F factor integrated into its chromosome then the cell is called HFR 31 Bacteriophage are involved in Transduction 32 During the process of conjugation involving a F cell what does not occur The chromosome of the F cell crosses the bridge 33 Mutations in bacterial genes can allow them to become resistant to antibiotics What is not a mechanism associated with mutations The bacteria evolve an antibody that neutralizes the antibiotic 34 What is not caused by a virus Anthrax 35 In viruses the protein structure that protects the viral genome is known as a viral Capsid 36 What supports the argument that viruses are nonliving They are not cellular and cannot generate their own energy 37 A bacterium that does not derive its energy from sunlight is known as Chemotroph 38 In the life cycle of a double stranded DNA virus Viral m RNA is produced by Transcriptional proteins encoded by the host cell 39 What is not a characteristic of the lysogenic cycle The viral genome is only passed down to one daughter cell 40 Which viruses have singlestranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis Retroviruses 41 What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses It uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis × I love that I can count on (Vanessa for top notch notes!

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